Resection refers to any operation that removes tissue or part of an organ. Sigmoid resection is the surgery to remove left part of the colon. The sigmoid colon is S shaped portion of the colon and lies close to the rectum and anus. The sigmoid colon functions as contracting tissues to expel the feces through the anus. Patients detected with colon cancer or with conditions like Crohn’s disease have to undergo sigmoid resection. If other meditations do not respond to the malfunctioning of sigmoid colon, then sigmoid resection is the other option available. Both open and laparoscopic surgery techniques are practiced for sigmoid resection. Laparoscopic sigmoid resection is the commonly used technique to remove affected colon.
During the expel of feces, extreme pressure is put on the walls of the sigmoid colon causing small bulges in the colon. These small pouches that bulge out are termed as diverticula. When these pouches inflates and ruptures another medical condition termed as diverticulitis is developed. This can lead to infection and in such cases sigmoid resection has to be carried out.
During the laparoscopic surgery, the Surgeon makes small incision in the abdomen. A laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera attached to the end) is inserted through the incision to view an enlarged image of internal organs and cavity. Then Surgical tools are inserted through other incisions and the sigmoid colon along with associated blood vessels and lymph nodes are removed. Then a joint is made between the remaining part of the colon and the top portion of the rectum. This joint is then supported with sutures or staples.
In rare cases there can be a leak from the join that was made during the surgery. This can be prevented by antibiotics. If it doesn’t respond then another surgery may require to form a stoma. In most cases these surgery do not require the formation of stoma. If required it is discussed with the patients prior to the surgery. In cases where a large part of the intestine is removed the stoma may be required and are attached to the abdominal wall. They can be permanent or temporary depending on the condition of the patient. Sigmoid resection surgery lasts for almost two hours. The main advantage of laparoscopic sigmoid resection is the minimal invasive procedure that leaves minimal scars in the abdomen and less pain.
In some cases when the sigmoid colon is diseased severely making it impossible to complete the surgery through laparoscope then the surgeon makes it in to an open surgery. In open surgery, the surgeon makes a larger cut in the abdomen and removes the sigmoid colon and closes the incision.
After the surgery, patients are moved into post care unit with drip and meditation to relieve the pain and a catheter to drain the urine. After 24 hours liquid food are provided and monitored for any complication. Patients are trained to use the pouches attached to remove the waste discharge. Special care should be taken to prevent any bleeding, infection or clots in the wounded area.