Resection describes the surgery to remove a part or the entire organ. Small bowel resection refers to the surgery that removes a part of the intestine. This is performed when a part or segment of the small intestine is diseased or blocked by any condition.
During the resection surgery, the surgeon begins with a general anesthetic. The abdomen is inflated with air to get a clear view of the cavity. It can be performed in open and laparoscopic method.
In laparoscopic small bowel resection, smaller cuts are made in the abdomen. A laparoscope is inserted through the incision. A laparoscope is a thin long device that has a camera attached to its end and connected to a monitor. This device enables the surgeon to view enlarged images of the internal organ and the internal cavity of the abdomen. Other repair tools are then inserted through the incision and the diseased segment of the intestine is removed.
In open surgery, the surgeon makes a larger incision in the abdomen and the diseased portion of the intestine is located and removed.
In both cases, the surgeon then connects the healthy parts of the intestine and staples together. If this is not possible then a portion of the intestine is brought out and forms an opening called as stoma. The stoma is then attached to the abdominal wall. An external pouch is attached to the stoma to collect the waste materials that are discharged from the body. Small bowel resection surgery usually lasts for 1 to 4 hours.
Resection treatment is used to treat various medical conditions including:
- Block in the intestine caused by scar tissues.
- Injury to the intestine
- Precancerous polyps
An anastomosis refers to a surgical procedure that makes connection between two tubular structures like blood vessels. Intestinal anastomosis refers to the connection of two ends of the intestine after a part of the diseased intestine is removed. This surgery restores the communication and continuity after a diseased segment of the intestine is removed through surgery. The connection is made by stapling or by using sutures in the new ends of the intestine.
An anastomosis can be naturally occurring or created using surgery. An anastomosis can be connecting two blood vessels or connecting two segments of the intestine after a diseased portion is removed due to infection or any other medical condition.
Intestinal anastomosis is usually performed to under the following conditions:
- prolonged intestinal obstruction
- intestinal polyps
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- ulcerative colitis
- Crohn’s disease
- Chronic constipation
There are various techniques used in intestinal anastomosis. These include the following:
- Incision and exposure
- Bowel resection
- Hand-sewn anastomosis( using absorbable or non-absorbable sutures)
- Stapled anastomosis
After the surgery, patients are requires to take to prevent any infection or bleeding from the incisions in the abdomen. Proper hygiene and control in diet has to be followed for faster recovery.