A hernia occurs when an organ get dislocated from its original location by pushing through the muscles or tissues that holds it within the position. Occurrence of hernia is mostly found in the abdomen. Most common hernia types are discussed below.
As the name suggest, inguinal hernia take place when the intestinal tissues thrust through the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is the junctional area between the abdomen and the thighs known as the groin. In male, the spermatic cord passes through the inguinal canal. In female the uterus in held in place by a ligament that passes through the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernia appears by bulges that are painful in the public region.
Femoral hernia also known as femerocele occurs when intra-abdominal tissues press through the wall of the femoral canal. The femoral canal lies just below the inguinal canal and hold the femoral artery, veins and nerves. Females are mostly found out to have the occurrence of femoral hernia causing blockage of blood flow to the intestine.
Umbilical hernia is found in babies. The umbilical cord carries oxygen and nutrients from the mother’s placenta to the womb through an opening in the stomach muscles. After birth the umbilical cord is cut and later the stomach muscles closes completely. An umbilical hernia occurs when the intestinal tissues bulge through the opening. Around 20% new born babies have umbilical hernia and will close on their own. If they are not closed by the age of four, treatment is required.
Hernioplasty also known as hernia repair is the procedure to treat all types of hernia. In this surgery the misplaced organ is moved back to original location and a synthetic mesh is provided to act as a support thereby preventing any misplacement of the organ in future.
Hernioplasty can be performed by open or laparoscopic surgery. In open hernioplasty, a large incision is made in the area and the organ is pushed back to the original location and a support (polypropylene mesh) is provided to prevent misplacement. In inguinal hernia, if the organ moves to the inguinal canal, the hernia sac will be removed and the procedure is termed as herniotomy. The hernioplasty surgery lasts for about 45 minutes and is performed under a local anesthetic. After the surgery patients are prescribed with meditation to prevent any development of infections or allergic reactions to anesthetic.
In some cases hernioplasty is accompanied by adhesiolysis, were in a band of scar tissues are removed that are formed as a repair mechanism of the body who has undergone previous surgery. They appear as thin or thick sheets of scar tissues surrounding the organ. The adhesions can be painful and prevent the normal functioning of the organ. When excessive adhesion tissues are formed around the organ, they cause extreme pain and make it difficult for the proper functioning of the organ. In such cases the adhesions are removed by adhesiolysis.