Hernia occurs when an organ pushes through the weakest muscle of the tissue wall surrounding the organ and gets misplaced. Most hernia develops in the abdominal area with few symptoms like swelling or lump in the area. When a hernia bulges out it can cause pressure in the blood vessels thereby causing restriction in the blood flow. When the blood flow is limited, the oxygen supply to the organ is reduced causing severe medical condition. Some commonly found hernia types are discussed below.
Inguinal hernia refers to the hernia that occurs in the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is in the groin, which is the junction that connects the abdomen and the thighs. Inguinal hernia is found in both men and women. In men, the testis is supported by the inguinal canal facilitating the passage of sperms through the spermatic cord. In women the uterus is held in position by the ligaments that pass through the inguinal canal.
Femoral hernia also known as femerocele occurs in the femoral canal when the abdominal tissues push through the wall of the canal. Femoral hernia can be caused by childbirth, obesity, heavy weight lifting, severe coughing etc, when more pressure is put in the abdomen, thereby causing the tissues to push through the weak muscle of the femoral canal. Large Femoral hernia are visible near the hip bone and cause severe pain while lifting or putting heavy strain to the abdomen region.
The umbilical cord is the connection that develops between the mother and the womb for the passage of oxygen and other vital nutrients from the mother to the baby. The cord develops from the placenta wall and connects to the small opening in the stomach muscles of the baby. After birth this opening is closed by the surrounding tissues. In some cases the abdominal tissues bulges out from this opening causing umbilical hernia. In most cases they are painless and get closed after few days of birth. If they are not covered by four years, treatment is recommended by the doctor.
Laparoscopic hernioplasty is widely used method to treat hernia. In laparoscopic surgery a small incision is made in the affected area and a laparoscope in inserted through which enlargeg image of the internal organs are visible. The surgery begins with a local anesthetic and the abdomen is inflated with air to make a clear view of the internal cavity. The surgical equipments are then inserted through the incision to push the organs back to the exact location. A mesh is then inserted to make sure no replacement of the organ occurs in the future. Patients having undergone laparoscopic hernioplasty surgery are able to go home within a day or two. Patients experience less pain and can be involved in light activities. Total recovery may take up to two weeks. Adhesiolysis is also performed along with herniopasty if presence of scar tissues is detected.