Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy or simply termed as gallbladder removal as the name suggest include removing the gallbladder with stones. The gallbladder is a small pear shaped organ that lies just beneath the liver. Gallbladder aids in the digestion process by collecting digestive enzymes (bile) produced in the liver and transports to the small intestine through narrow channels (bile ducts).
Reasons for gallbladder troubles
- Formation of gallstones. These are hard forms of cholesterol and bile salts and get accumulated in the organ or in the duct thereby blocking the flow of digestive enzymes.
- Mostly found in older peoples.
Presence of Gallstones in the bladder or duct will block the flow of enzymes through bile duct to the small intestine which results in swelling, pain, indigestion and vomiting. If leaven untreated, it can cause severe medical condition as jaundice.
Gall stones are diagnosed by Ultrasound scanning or in complex cases, Gallbladder nuclear medicine scan is used.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most commonly used treatment for gallstones where the gallbladder along with gallstones is removed by an incision made in the navel area in the abdomen. The surgeon begins with a anesthetic to relax the body tissues and muscles. Once anesthetic begins it work, the surgeon inserts a cannula through which a laparoscope (instrument that has a telescope attached to a video camera) is inserted to have enlarged images of the organs. More elongated incisions are made through which the surgeon removes the bladder with specially designed instruments. The surgeon also inspects the bile duct for any gall stones by an x-ray (cholangiogram). If gall stones presence are detected in the bladder, they are also removed and later incisions are closed by surgical clips or stitches. The surgery generally last for one- two hours.
Adhesions are developed as part of healing process of the body immune system. It forms a band of tissues between the organs to protect them. Presences of adhesions are indicated by pain and inflammation. Adhesions can bind together tissues of organs causing improper functioning of organs. They are visible as thin or thick sheets of fibrous tissue bands of adhesions causing fluid accumulation. In most cases, surgeons suggest adhesiolysis were scar tissues are removed along laparoscopic cholesystectomy.
After laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients have least post operative pain and have a fast recovery. Most patients can leave the hospital on the same day itself. However care should be taken with proper medication. Particular attention should be taken if any symptoms like fever with yellow skin and eyes, pain in the abdomen, frequent vomiting, or any pus discharge from the incisions are noticed. Patients can perform day to day activities within a week. Moreover, there are minimal internal wounds when the procedures are conducted in a minimally invasive manner.