Infertility is a condition when the person is unable to conceive and achieve a healthy pregnancy. Infertility can also be considered as the biological inability of either of the partner to contribute to conception or when the female partner is unable to carry the pregnancy for a full term.
There are many factors that can lead to infertility. The factors that can lead to infertility depend on an individual’s lifestyle and eating habits. Infertility is reported in both men and women and can be cured on early diagnosis.
Infertility Testing or Infertility Diagnosis
The main purpose of an infertility evaluation is to know the problem in achieving successful Pregnancy. The diagnostic procedure differs in both men and women.
Evaluation of male infertility involves the following:
- Semen Analysis
2-5 ml volume is taken for semen analysis. Sperm count greater than 20million per ml and motility is tested under semen analysis. The semen also contains few white cells.
- Post Coital Test
During this test, a presence of motile sperm in the cervical mucus of the female partner is tested. This test is generally done 6-12 hours after the intercourse around the time of ovulation.
- Hormonal Determination
Hormonal levels are tested through certain blood tests when the semen analysis shows less than optimum results.
- Urological Evaluation
During this test, male external genitalia is examined to look for varicocele. Varicocele leads to a delay in blood supply in testicular veins resulting in increased temperature in the testes. The increased temperature in the testes affects the quality of sperm and its motility.
During the female evaluation, the following factors need to be considered apart from seeing the ovulation pattern.
The cervix is the opening present between the vagina and endometrial cavity. During ovulation, clear mucus begins to develop on and around the cervix. This mucus is similar to egg white in appearance and it makes it easier for the sperm to travel into the endometrial cavity to fertilize the eggs. The absence of mucus development on and around the cervix makes it difficult for the sperm to travel to the endometrial cavity. This test is done only 6-12 hours after the intercourse around the time of ovulation.
The endometrium is the lining of the uterus that is examined with an endometrial biopsy. During the biopsy, a sample of the lining of the uterus is taken and 2 days prior to the menstrual flow. A urinary pregnancy test is done prior to this procedure.
When the test is negative a tiny catheter is inserted into the endometrial cavity and suction is used to obtain a small strip of the uterus lining. Endometrial dating is performed in the pathology lab and the results are correlated with the next menstrual period that occurs in the next few days.
Endometrial biopsy indicated the progesterone deficiency that may be associated with the recurrent pregnancy losses and infertility. Endometrial biopsy also helps in evaluating the quality of ovulation and the hormone production that surrounds the whole menstrual cycle.
- Tubal Factor
Fallopian tubes are the two structures that are present on either side of the uterus that carries the eggs from the ovaries into the uterus. Hysterosalpingogram is used to determine the health of the fallopian tubes. This procedure is generally done in the week after your menstrual period. There are two ways to perform this test:
- A small cannula is applied on the tip of the cervix
- A catheter is passed into the uterus for injecting the dye into the endometrial cavity and the fallopian tubes.
X-ray machines are used to monitor the passage of dye into the endometrial cavity. With the help of this dye, pathologists can determine the presence of fibroids, scar tissues or endometrial polyps.
- Fallopian Tubes and Peritoneal Factor
The health of the fallopian tubes and the peritoneal factor is generally examined. Diagnostic laparoscopy can also be done under general anesthesia. Using a laparoscope your gynecologist can examine the presence of fibroids, scar tissues, and endometriosis. Laparoscopy is mainly used to examine the pelvic organs and diagnose the Infertility in women.
- Ovarian Factor
The history of your menstrual periods is carefully studied to check the duration, frequency, and regularity of your periods. The blood test is done to check whether your ovaries are able to release the hormones that are required to achieve pregnancy.
If you or your partner is facing fertility issues, you can consult the gynecologist in Gachibowli or the infertility specialists in Hyderabad for diagnosis. Hegde hospital has best gynecologists in Kukatpally. Gynecologist in Kondapur can treat the infertility issues with successful results.