Hemorrhoids also commonly known as piles describe the presence of inflamed and swollen veins around the outside of the anus (last part of the anal opening where fecal is eliminated from the body) or in the last part of the intestine called as rectum. The swelling and enlargement of the veins can be due to strain put on then during bowel movements. Other factors include:
- Severe constipation
- Straining during bowel movements
- Fiber less diet
- Pregnancy: growing fetus can put pressure in the rectum region and the veins may get swollen.
In rare cases hemorrhoids may get complicated leading to:
- Anemia: due to heavy loss of flood from hemorrhoids, this can end up in anemia.
- Strangulated hemorrhoid: In very rare cases, hemorrhoid may get popped out of the rectum and can be very painful. This can lead to a medical condition termed as gangrene. In such conditions surgery are opted to treat hemorrhoid.
There are two types of Hemorrhoids, interior and exterior depending upon the area of development. Thrombosed hemorrhoids develop in the exterior skin covering the anus. In such hemorrhoids the veins swell and form clots inside resulting in severe pain and bleeding from the anus. Another complication with external hemorrhoids is hat after treatment the remains of skin tags may cause infection and problems with the hygiene. On the other hand internal hemorrhoids are formed inside the anus and cause pain when they bulge to the outside of the anus thereby collapsing the anal sphincter. This results in release of blood or mucus like drainage causing irritation and itching in the area.
Hemorrhoids are mainly treated with dietary changes and with medications. The surgery to remove hemorrhoids is termed as Hemorrhoidectomy. The surgery helps to relieve from the pain and swelling caused by hemorrhoids. The surgery procedure starts with a general anesthesia. Small incisions are made around the tissues surrounding hemorrhoids. Then the swelled veins surrounding the hemorrhoids are coupled and tied to prevent bleeding. Hemorrhoids are then carefully removed from the anal area. Later the incisions are closed or left open.
Generally the surgery is performed using a scalpel, a cautery pencil or laser.
Stapled hemorrhoidectomy surgery is the latest technique to treat hemorrhoids that are complicated and ruptured affecting both internal and external areas around the anus and rectum. This surgery procedure uses a spherical stapling device to remove hemorrhoids and surround tissues. One advantage of this method is that no incisions are made to remove the hemorrhoids and disrupts the blood supply to hemorrhoids. Patients have less pain after surgery.
Another form of hemorrhoidectomy is the Doppler techniques were a scope is used to figure the location of hemorrhoids veins and then removed thereby less tissues are removed as part of the surgery.
After undertaking surgery patients get rid of hemorrhoids and the anus tissue tightens and relaxes. Doctors prescribe stool softeners to relieve pain. It takes almost two weeks to recover from the condition.